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Showing posts from January, 2022

How do programs work on a computer? (Part 1/2)

Let's take a very simple program for understanding how this system works. The following example is a very basic C code that assigns 2 variables (x and y) and then adds them to generate a value 'z'.  Note: We do not output anything in this program void main() { int x = 3; int y = 4; int z = x + y; } But we have a pressing question. Computers inherently work on electronics and logic, so how does it understand and execute the program? The answer is not very simple and you have to bear with me through a tiny journey. Basic Logic Circuits Let's first begin with a very basic Circuit which implements AND logic and OR logic (skip if you are familiar)  As seen in the circuits above, for the left circuit, the LED lights up only when both switches are on. This is AND logic as "Switch 1 AND Switch 2 need to be on". In the circuit on the right, either of the switch will switch on the LED. Note that in the

The future of Web Acceleration and Security: SmartNICs

Since 2016, India has been one of the fastest-growing markets for the internet. It almost doubled its internet penetration in half a decade (2016-2020), and the average broadband speeds increased by 77% in just one year (2016-2017), while mobile speeds improved by 42% in the same year ( source ). In 2020, Amazon was hit with the then-largest known DDoS attack of 2.3Tbps, while the very next year, an attack of 2.4Tbps was defended by Microsoft. Have you ever wondered about the changes under the hood required to support such high bandwidths and mitigate such an attack? If yes, this post will introduce you to some of the technologies involved. Note: This post is not comprehensive by any means and barely covers the beginning of the surface of the technologies involved. The Bandwidth Problem Let us first begin by u nderstanding the most fundamental problem of the internet. Bandwidth. What is bandwidth? Source and Attribution: The above i